This paper purports to solve a particular kind of problem that characterizes urban expansion and evolution: when replace a collection of individual apparatuses (CIA) with a mass system. Examples include replacing individual septic tanks by sewers, well to public water supply, private cars by mass transit, trash burners by public pickup, coal or fuel by line-distributed gas or electric power, individual by community antennae, individual driveways by alleys or a subdivision, individual roadside business signs by collective locational advertising, individual messenger by postal service, individual deliveries by united parcel service, tank trucks by an oil pipeline, individual stores by a shopping centre, basement pumps and periodic cleanups by storm sewers and flood control, and so on. On a larger scale one meets the same problems in replacing a collection of small, Balkanized local sewer systems by a metropolitan or regional system.
In Paul Downing (ed.), Local Service Pricing Policies and their Effect on Urban Spatial Structure. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1977, pp. 173-213.